## Process Physics and Chaos Theory

Process Universe

New models arise to correct the errors and fill in the gaps in conventional science. Process-oriented models are replacing static models of reality. Process physics is one such proposal that has many merits, since it describes an experiential 4-d universe that agrees with current experimental evidence. It does not require dark matter or energy, nor the multiple dimensions of string or M-Theory. It’s main proponent is Australian researcher Reginald Cahill.

“Process physics claims to be a model of reality that is designed to replace general relativity and unify it with quantum theory. The limitations of formal information systems discovered by Gödel, Turing and Chaitin, are used to replace the geometric modeling of time constructed by Galileo, Newton and Einstein, and to account for the measurement process in quantum theory. Process Physics is distinguished by modelling time as process. The ongoing failure of physics to fully match all the aspects of the phenomena of time, apart from that of order, arises because physics has always used non-process models, as is the nature of formal or syntactical systems. Such systems do not require any notion of process – they are entirely structural and static. The new process physics overcomes these deficiencies by using a non-geometric process model for time, but process physics also argues for the importance of relational or semantic information in modelling reality. Semantic information is information that is generated and recognised within the system itself.”

“In Process Physics we start from the premise that the limits to logic, which are implied by Gödel’s incompleteness theorems, mean that any attempt to model reality via a formal system is doomed to failure. Instead of formal systems we use a process system, which uses the notions of self-referential information with self-referential noise and self-organised criticality to create a new type of information-theoretic system that is realising both the current formal physical modelling of reality but is also exhibiting features such as the direction of time, the present moment effect and quantum state entanglement (including EPR effects, nonlocality and contextuality), as well as the more familiar formalisms of Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. In particular a theory of Gravity has already emerged.

In short, rather than the static 4-dimensional modelling of present day (non-process) physics, Process Physics is providing a dynamic model where space and matter are seen to emerge from a fundamentally random but self-organising system. The key insight is that to adequately model reality we must move on from the traditional non-process syntactical information modelling to a process semantic information modelling; such information is `internally meaningful’.

The new theory of gravity which has emerged from Process Physics is in agreement with all experiments and observations. This theory has two gravitational constants: G, the Newtonian gravitational constant, and a second dimensionless constant which experiment has revealed to be the fine structure constant. This theory explains the so-called `dark matter’ effect in spiral galaxies, the bore hole gravitational anomalies, the masses of the observed black holes at the centres of globular clusters, and the anomalies in Cavendish laboratory measurements of G.” –Reginald Cahill

The Fine Structure & Dynamics of Self-Interacting Space, a Dimensionless Constant & Transient Realities

Revisioning Process-oriented Time, Space, Matter & Gravity

Process physics is a reformulation of key concepts to include quantized space. Process-oriented science is a radical information theoretic approach to the modeling fundamental physics. It aims toward a theory of everything by abandoning the space-time construct of Galileo, Newton and Einstein, and by arguing that only a process can model time. Process physics uses a process model of time rather than a geometrical model. It includes differences in past, present and future not derivable from the geometric model.

Time in process physics is modelled as an iterative process, where each iteration is like the next present moment. Due to the randomness present in the iterative equation, the future is not completely predictable. Also, it is not possible to perform the inverse operation, meaning you cannot go backwards to the previous moments. Process physics thus predicts a static past, a continually changing present moment, and an unpredictable future – all of which is consistent with how we experience the passage of time.

Randomness Paradigm

Randomness is more fundamental than objects. Expanding space isn’t empty but full of topological defects, like snags in the fabric of space that share nonlocality — linked by transient wormholes. Matter emerges into 3-d view while simultaneously concealing its virtual origin through self-organizing criticality (SOC). Process physics eliminates infinite regression while generating a complete theory of quantum measurements.

Quantum phenomena are caused by fractal topological defects embedded in and forming a growing three-dimensional fractal process-space, which is essentially a quantum foam. Other features of the emergent physics are: quantum field theory with emergent flavour and confined colour, limited causality and the Born quantum measurement metarule, inertia, time-dilation effects, gravity and the equivalence principle, a growing universe with a cosmological constant, black holes and event horizons, and the emergence of classicality.

Process Physics suggests a hierarchical model of reality featuring a Universe that exhibits behavior very reminiscent of living systems. How should we categorize space? Is it a `thing’ or is it a `process’? From Greek philosophers to the present day this question has been examined again and again, but has remained unanswered. Recent discoveries have cast a new light on this essential core of existence, and the experimental evidence strongly indicates that modern day physics has made some wrong assumptions. Is reality a side-effect of randomness?

Absolute Motion

Space has internal structure. Space and quantum physics are emergent and unified, and described by a Quantum Homotopic Field (embedding one space in another). This structure is described as a network of nodal points with connections between nodes of varying strength.

Space has a foamy quantum structure. The speed of absolute motion is comparable to that determined from the Cosmic Background Radiation anisotropy, but the direction is not revealed. So absolute motion is meaningful and measureable, thus refuting Einstein’s assumption. This discovery shows that a major re-assessment of the interpretation of the Special and General Relativity formalism is called for, a task already provided by Process Physics.

Self-Organizing Iterative Seed Process

Reality can be modelled as self-organizing semantic or relational information using a self-referentially limited neural network model (trees of self-referential strong connections), where the information-theoretic limitations are implemented via self-referential noise, a fundamental aspect of reality. This modelling was motivated by the discovery that such stochastic neural networks are foundational to known quantum field theories.

In Process Physics time is a distinct non-geometric process while space and quantum physics are emergent and unified. Quantum phenomena are caused by fractal topological defects embedded in and forming a growing three-dimensional fractal process-space, which is essentially a quantum foam.

Embedded topological defects act as sinks for aether flow, i.e. ordinary matter. Reasonably, another set of embedded topological defects stabilized out of the initial chaos with the complementary property that they act as sources of aether flow. By producing aether, those sources would effectively move away from everything else and could thereby drive the Hubble expansion.

Sets of strongly linked nodes persist and become further linked by the iterator to form a three-dimensional process space with embedded topological defects. In this way the stochastic neural-network creates stable strange attractors while determining their interaction properties. This information is all internal to the system; it is the semantic information within the network.

Other features are the emergence of quantum field theory with flavour and confined colour, limited causality and the Born quantum measurement metarule, inertia, time-dilation effects, gravity and the equivalence principle, a growing universe with a cosmological constant, black holes and event horizons, and the emergence of classicality. The unification of the quantum foam structure of space with the quantum nature of matter amounts to the discovery of quantum gravity.

Quantum Gravity

Gravity is apparently an aspect of space which has gone through various possible explanations, from the force concept by Newton, as expressed in his famous inverse square law, to Einstein’s curved spacetime formalism. However experiment and observations suggest that both of these explanations are seriously flawed. Both are in strong disagreement with observation.

Both the Newtonian and General Relativity theories for gravity may be re-formulated as turbulent in-flow dynamics in which a substratum is effectively absorbed by matter, with the gravitational force determined by inhomogeneities of that flow. Gravity is an inhomogeneous flow of quantum foam into matter.

Quantum gravity, as manifested in the emergent Quantum Homotopic Field Theory of the process-space or quantum foam, is logically prior to the emergence of the general relativity phenomenology, and cannot be derived from it. Gravity is essentially an in-flow effect associated with the loss of information.

Matter & Mass

Matter is described as topological defects in three dimensional space that have the ability to become persistent by preserving the pattern of its links over many iterations. Matter is embedded in three dimensional space but is essentially made of the same thing as space. It moves by re-linking preferentially in the direction of travel and losing links more often in the opposite direction to travel. The pattern therefore appears to move relative to the underlying fabric of space and to other matter. Once the movement has started then it will become self sustaining requiring no more energy to continue. Any change in direction to its passage through space would be resisted, which manifests itself as inertia.

The topological defect nature of matter means it has more links than normal space. This would produce the effect of using up more links than the space surrounding it meaning that space would effectively sink into matter. This is speculated as the reason behind gravity where the space between masses would effectively shrink making the masses become closer together. The masses would not move as such but the distance between them would get smaller.

This also explains why a free falling body does not seem to experience a force while accelerating due to gravity towards a more massive body. This however goes against general relativity as the gravitational effect would be instantaneous rather than effect at a distance at the speed of light. An experiment to measure the speed of gravity would go a long way in establishing if general relativity or process physics is closer to reality.

Dark Matter Effect

The galactic `dark matter’ effect is regarded as one of the major problems in fundamental physics. Process physics explains it as a self-interaction dynamical effect of space itself, not caused by an unknown form of matter. So-called `dark matter’ networks revealed via weak gravitational lensing are caused by quantum-foam vortex filaments, and that the `frame-dragging’ effect is caused by vorticity in the in-flow.

This leads to the new phenomenon of gravitational attractors. By analysing the borehole data this new constant is shown to be the fine structure constant alpha = e^2/h-bar*c ~ 1/137. The spiral galaxy `dark matter’ effect and the globular cluster central `black hole’ masses for M15 and G1 are then predicted.

The Process Physics theory of space is non-local and we see many parallels between this and quantum theory, in addition to the fine structure constant manifesting in both, so supporting the argument that space is a quantum foam system, as implied by the deeper information-theoretic theory known as Process Physics. The spatial dynamics also provides an explanation for the `dark matter’ effect and as well the non-locality of the dynamics provides a mechanism for generating the uniformity of the universe, so explaining the cosmological horizon problem.

Data shows that both Newtonian gravity and General Relativity are also seriously flawed, and a new theory of gravity explains various so-called gravitational `anomaliesÌ, including the `dark matter’ effect. The new `quantum-foam in-flow’ theory of gravity has explained numerous so-called gravitational anomalies, particularly the `dark matter’ effect which is now seen to be a dynamical effect of space itself, and whose strength is determined by the fine structure constant, and not by Newton’s gravitational constant G. The emergent theory of gravity has two gravitational constants: G – Newton’s constant, and a dimensionless constant. Various experiments and astronomical observations have shown that this constant is the fine structure constant: 1/137.

There is a detectable local preferred frame of reference. A new theory of gravity is necessary that results in an explanation of the `dark matter’ effect. The fine structure constant is a 2nd gravitational constant. A new theory of gravity predicts, however, a second and much larger `frame-dragging’ or vorticity induced spin precession. This spin precession component will also display the effects of novel gravitational waves which are predicted by the new theory of gravity, and which have already been seen in several experiments.

A theory of 3-space explains the phenomenon of gravity as arising from the time-dependence and inhomogeneity of the differential flow of this 3-space. Turbulence in the flow amounts to gravitational waves. The new dynamical `quantum foam’ theory of 3-space is described at the classical level by a velocity field. This has been repeatedly detected and the dynamical equations are now established. These equations predict 3-space `gravitational wave’ effects, and these have been observed, and the 1991 DeWitte data is analysed to reveal the fractal structure of these `gravitational waves’. .

Process Physics

Professor Reg Cahill

Dr. Christopher Klinger

Dr Kirsty Kitto

Dr Lance McCarthy

http://www.scieng.flinders.edu.au/cpes/people/cahill_r/processphysics.html

A new paradigm for the modelling of reality is currently being developed called Process Physics. In Process Physics we start from the premise that the limits to logic, which are implied by Gödel’s incompleteness theorems, mean that any attempt to model reality via a formal system is doomed to failure. Instead of formal systems we use a process system, which uses the notions of self-referential information with self-referential noise and self-organised criticality to create a new type of information-theoretic system that is realising both the current formal physical modelling of reality but is also exhibiting features such as the direction of time, the present moment effect and quantum state entanglement (including EPR effects, nonlocality and contextuality), as well as the more familiar formalisms of Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. In particular a theory of Gravity has already emerged.

In short, rather than the static 4-dimensional modelling of present day (non-process) physics, Process Physics is providing a dynamic model where space and matter are seen to emerge from a fundamentally random but self-organising system. The key insight is that to adequately model reality we must move on from the traditional non-process syntactical information modelling to a process semantic information modelling; such information is `internally meaningful’.

The new theory of gravity which has emerged from Process Physics is in agreement with all experiments and observations. This theory has two gravitational constants: G, the Newtonian gravitational constant, and a second dimensionless constant which experiment has revealed to be the fine structure constant. This theory explains the so-called `dark matter’ effect in spiral galaxies, the bore hole gravitational anomalies, the masses of the observed black holes at the centres of globular clusters, and the anomalies in Cavendish laboratory measurements of G. As well it gives a parameter-free account of the supernovae Hubble expansion data without the need for dark energy, dark matter nor accelerating universe. This reveals that the Friedmann equations are inadequate for describing the universe expansion dynamics.