THE SEDONA EFFECT

NEW: Sedona Report Research Paper 2010

THE SEDONA EFFECT
Correlations Between Geomagnetic Anomalies, EEG Brainwaves, &
Schumann Resonance in Sedona Vortex Areas

by Ben Lonetree & Iona Miller, (c)2010
http://sedonaomalies.weebly.com

“All behaviors, including consciousness, are generated by and correlated with brain activity. The activity can be conceived as complex matrices of electromagnetic patterns and their associated chemical changes. Weak intensity complex magnetic fields generated by the earth and by human technology affect consciousness and experience. The critical factor is not the intensity of the fields but their patterns and the information contained within the patterns.
Those patterns that are most similar to the natural temporal configurations of brain activity are most effective.”
— Michael Persinger, Behavioral Neuroscience

ABSTRACT: Sedona is the virtual center of Arizona. Many have claimed so, but no one has demonstrated THE SEDONA EFFECT to a scientific standard until now. Proof of Sedona Vortex / Brainwave EEG synchronization can be demonstrated with portable equipment on site in the field, during sudden magnetic events. Previously, we have demonstrated magnetic anomaly charts recorded in both known and unrecognized Vortex activity locations. We have also shown a correlation or amplification of vortex phenomena with Schumann Resonance (2005, Lonetree & Miller). Adding the third measurable parameter of brain wave activity, we demonstrate resonance and amplification among them. We suggest tiny magnetic crystals, biogenic magnetite, makes the human being highly sensitive to ELF field fluctuations. Biological Magnetite could act as a transducer of both low frequency magnetic fields and RF fields.

There may be more than a single electromagnetic coupling mechanism. For example, geomagnetic activity fluctuates most rapidly during upsurge of solar activity which alters brain rhythms and hormonal levels, or the downward part of the cycle, when sunspots are rapidly diminishing. Lonetree’s longitudinal EMF studies in several stages over nearly a decade have included phases of monitoring Schumann Resonance (SR), magnetic flux and weather patterns in the test regions of Arizona. He conducted repeatable experiments using a variety of volunteer subjects and weather conditions. Using magnetometers and EEG, he recorded the synchronous signals of geomagnetic anomalies with human brainwaves. Parameters include SR (amplifies effect), brainwave frequency and amplitude, and sudden magnetic events from multiple vortex spots. Evoked potentials include high well-being, healing, nature mystic experiences, ESP or anomalous cognition, and other psychophysical phenomena.

However these sorts of investigation leave unanswered how the brain makes these global excitations into the internal model of reality which we experience subjectively and identify with the real world around us, or indeed how or why subjective consciousness exists in addition to the computational capacity of the brain as a neuro-system. Because no simple chemical (or electromagnetic) explanation seems to have the right existential status to deal with subjective experience, the problem may need to be solved by examining more exotic physics in the brain, such as quantum entanglement, which might lead to new forms of physical interaction which might solve the problem of existential subjectivity. (C. King)

Further studies in magnetoreception may reveal new mechanisms. Questions remain: 1). What is the nature of magnetic sensory cells? 2). By what physical mechanism is the external magnetic field coupled into the organism (reception)?
3). How sensitive is the mechanism to small changes in the magnetic field (detection threshold)? 4). What physical mechanisms or chemical pathways convert the received magnetic energy into a nervous signal (transduction)?

KEYWORDS: geomagnetic activity, geomagnetic pulsations, magnetic anomalies, magnetite, brainwaves, Sedona vortex, Schumann Resonance, healing, ESP, temporal lobe, brainwave resonance, meditation, ESP, brainwave synchronization, biomagnetics, vector equilibrium matrix, tensegrity, magnetotellurics
Proximal Changes in the Geomagnetic Field Intensity
The changes in intensity (in nanoTesla) within the earth’s magnetic field in the three spatial planes
surrounding subject’s head were measured. Routine laboratory measurements
have revealed that the semiconductive properties of the human mass can alter the shape and
intensity of the geomagnetic field along the boundaries of the body (Presman 1970).
http://jcer.com/file/JCER_V1%289%29.pdf

Arguably, proof of Sedona Vortex/Brainwave EEG synchronization can be demonstrated with portable equipment on site in the field, during sudden magnetic events. Previously, we have demonstrated magnetic anomaly charts recorded in both known and unrecognized Vortex activity locations. We have also shown a correlation or amplification of vortex phenomena with Schumann Resonance. (2005, Lonetree & Miller)

Spontaneous Synchronization

Adding the third measurable parameter of brain wave activity demonstrates resonance and amplification among them. Brainwaves are not monitored for subject-induced meditative states, but for direct correlation in shifts with magnetic flux. No active effort is required. The subject remains neutral, relaxed and open but does not try to influence the readings in any way.

Biomagnetic Minerals

We suggest tiny magnetic crystals, biogenic magnetite, makes the human being highly sensitive to ELF field fluctuations. Research has just begun to evaluate the role of magnetite in health and disease. Magnetic mineral crystal, aligned in chains, is embedded in biological membranes. Formation of the chain is under genetic control, but the process that produces magnetite in organisms is still unknown.

Curiously, far more biogenic magnetite is present in animal tissues than is needed for magnetoreception, and the biological function of this extra material is unknown. The presence of ferromagnetic materials in biological systems could provide physical transduction mechanisms for ELF magnetic fields, as well for microwave radiation in the .5 to 10 GHz band where magnetite has its peak ferromagnetic resonance. Magnetite could act as a transducer of both low frequency magnetic fields and RF fields. These models rely on the fact that magnetite will couple strongly to the magnetic fields either through ferromagnetic resonance effects or mechanical effects on membrane ion channels and could disrupt the normal functioning of cells in the brain (Kirschvink).

Ferrimagnetic material is spontaneously magnetized, leaving the magnetic moments of the atoms on different sublattices opposed. The presence of ferrimagnetic material in human brain tissue provides plausible theoretical mechanisms for the interaction of environmental magnetic fields with the human central nervous system. Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials form permanent magnets or are attracted to magnets. The ferromagnetic transduction model proposed by Kirschvink suggests that the coupling of biogenic magnetite particles in the human brain to mechanosensitive membrane ion gates may provide a mechanism for interactions of artificial and natural environmental magnetic fields with humans.

Magnetite is the most magnetic of all the naturally occurring minerals on Earth. Humans have cuboctahedral chains of magnetite crystals in brain tissue and elsewhere (Fig. 5). Cuboctahedral geometry has specific synergetic properties for transduction. One of the most important shapes in nature, cuboctahedral morphology has the properties of a “jitterbugging” vector equilibrium matrix, the basis of tensegrity (B. Fuller; Ingber). Tensegrity (tensional integrity) applies to basic geometrical biological building blocks. Cuboctahedral ferrite is an equilibrium growth form.

Magnetic Field Sensitivity

Magnetic nanoparticles are embedded in the inner ear (Ho). They may form the basis of an endogenous compass in certain organisms. A geomagnetic field could induce magnetite displacements detectable by the hair cells for purposes of geomagnetic orientation. Kirschvink et al. [ I992] have developed a simple biophysical model for understanding the response of a magnetite-based sensory organelle moving in a viscous fluid which makes quantitative predictions concerning the frequency vs. sensitivity relationships expected for magnetite-based magnetoreceptors. Paramagnetism is a weak magnetic condition of substances that have a positive but small susceptibility to magnetism. The question remains, “can it carry regenerative instructions?”

Magnetoreception

Since biogenic magnetite seems to be everywhere in the environment, internally and externally, it may have played a basic role in the initial development of living systems and various sensing mechanisms. Geoelectromagnetic signal information may play a survival role in: navigation, migration/location/orientation, and biological rhythms. There is also anticipation and detection of subtle or catastrophic changes in seasonal variations, weather, hurricane/tornado, and earthquakes. Evidence suggests that biological forms follow the energy patterns laid down by the waveforms of the environment. Electromagnetic vibration can rearrange molecules and macro-molecules into patterned forms (sound, RF, microwave, heat, light, etc.)

Are EMF-induced changes in biological sensitivity and sensory transduction a model for biological detection of EM fields? Kirschvink’s calculation shows that magnetosomes moving in response to earth-strength ELF fields are capable of opening trans-membrane ion channels, in a fashion similar to those predicted by ionic resonance models. Therefore, the presence of trace levels of biogenic magnetite in virtually all human tissues examined suggests that similar biophysical processes may explain a variety of weak field ELF bioeffects. There may be more than a single electromagnetic coupling mechanism. For example, geomagnetic activity fluctuates most rapidly during upsurge of solar activity which alters brain rhythms and hormonal levels, or the downward part of the cycle, when sunspots are rapidly diminishing.

Lonetree’s longitudinal EMF studies in several stages over nearly a decade have included phases of monitoring Schumann Resonance (SR), magnetic flux and weather patterns in the test regions of Arizona. He conducted repeatable experiments using a variety of volunteer subjects and weather conditions. Using magnetometers and EEG, he recorded the synchronous signals of geomagnetic anomalies with human brainwaves. Parameters include SR (amplifies effect), brainwave frequency and amplitude, and sudden magnetic events from multiple vortex spots. Evoked potentials include high well-being, healing, nature mystic experiences, ESP or anomalous cognition, and other psychophysical phenomena. Fieldtrip Report: http://sedonanomalies.com/brainwave_magnetic_sync.htm

HYPOTHESIS: Further, we hypothesize that some individuals experiencing extraordinary visionary activity in vortex spots may have a low threshold for kindling sub-clinical “temporal lobe transients,” (TLTs), micro-seizures which induce a host of psychosensory phenomena. Neural static and discharge are kindled by electrical instabilities in the brain. Typically, such experiences are assigned special personal meaning. According to neuropsychologist Michael Persinger, “God is a result of electro-magnetic stimulation of the temporal lobes …. the God Experience is synthesized during the temporal lobe transients.”

Future research could replicate Persinger’s lab research in the Sedona field setting, testing induction of TLTs by the application of natural or artificial transcerebral complex magnetic fields. We suggest vortex activity as a precipitating stimuli with testable parameters and variables, including tectonic strain. Persinger argued that strain within the Earth’s crust near seismic faults produces intense electromagnetic (EM) fields, creating bodies of light that some interpret as glowing UFOs. The same EM field effects can lead to hallucinations.

Further studies in magnetoreception may reveal new mechanisms. Questions remain: 1). What is the nature of magnetic sensory cells? 2). By what physical mechanism is the external magnetic field coupled into the organism (reception)?
3). How sensitive is the mechanism to small changes in the magnetic field (detection threshold)? 4). What physical mechanisms or chemical pathways convert the received magnetic energy into a nervous signal (transduction)?

J. King describes a more exotic research direction stemming from a startling discovery. Evidence of similar magnetite crystals found in the Martian meteorite ALH84001 suggest the possibility of life on Mars. This identification relied on a comparison of the morphology of the meteoritic magnetite crystals with the magnetosomes from the magnetotactic bacteria, MV-1. Naturally, Mars lost its protective magnetosphere aeons ago when its core cooled and stopped rotating.
from http://sedonaomalies.weebly.com “The Sedona Effect” by Iona Miller & Ben Lonetree

INTRODUCTION

Long hailed by Native Americans as the place where “Mother Earth speaks”, and more recently as home of the “mystical vortex”, Sedona with its redrock temples proves much more than a place of intense beauty. Many books have been written on the special “Vortex” energy field phenomena found in Sedona. Some say it cannot be measured while others claim it is electromagnetic in origin.

After 10 years of research using fluxgate magnetometers and large induction coils, one of the authors (Lonetree) can definitively state that intense electromagnetic activity abounds in Sedona.

Still, analyzing geophysical fields from many factors takes skill in data interpretation of electric (geoelectric horizon), seismic, magnetic and gravitational methods. Characteristic include higher gravitational fields, mozaic positive and negative magnetic fields, and high values of apparent resistivity of rocks. Massive magnetite deposits can produce magnetic fields several times the magnitude of Earth’s normal field. The presence of magnetite can give basalt measurable magnetic properties. Remnant magnetic fields are also related to gravity and tectonic structure. Precambrian crystalline rocks and igneous rocks generally contain sufficient magnetic minerals to cause variations in the earth’s magnetic field. The predominant magnetic mineral in these rocks is magnetite.

Geochronology: Crustal Evolution

New rock formed from magma records the orientation of Earth’s magnetic field at the time the magma cooled. The magnetic Precambrian crystalline basement is the most likely source of the broad magnetic high in the Sedona area. In geology, the term “crystalline basement” defines primordial metamorphic or igneous layers below a sedimentary platform or cover.

The basement was formed underground when archaic crustal rock was changed, by intense heat and pressure. It pre-dates life on earth. Depth to basement is one influence on magnetic anomalies. The lithological composition of the crystalline basement consists mainly of various meta-volcanics which ‘froze’ then ‘folded’ paleomagnetic data on wandering pole positions. Sedimentary layers can be rich in iron oxide, compounding magnetic effects. Basaltic lava flows may lack a crystalline structure.

The earth’s magnetic field has magnetized certain minerals as the crust formed and morphed through tectonic collisions. The magnetic crystalline basement has differences in relief and magnetization. By taking into consideration the geological and geophysical data, regional magnetic anomalies may be explained by changes in the relief of the homogeneously magnetized crystalline basement and by embedded material.

High density basement

The rocks above the major density contrast are usually younger sediments and/or volcanics, typically having densities ranging from approximately 1.9 g/cm3 to 2.6 g/cm3. Those below the major density contrast are usually older sedimentary, volcanic and/or crystalline rocks, typically having densities ranging from 2.6 g/cm3 to 3.0 g/cm3. High density basement may or may not be equivalent to crystalline and/or magnetic basement.

Magnetic Basement
Magnetic basement is usually equated to crystalline (felsic and mafic) or sometimes, metamorphic basement. It is the unconformity upon which an essentially non-magnetic sedimentary section has been deposited. Large exposures of basement (e.g., the Canadian Shield) show it to be lithologically and magnetically heterogeneous. Very thick sequences of highly magnetic volcanics may sometimes be considered equivalent to a magnetic basement.

Magnetic Sedimentary Section
A surface or zone within the geologic column where magnetic susceptibility contrasts are significant enough to generate magnetic anomalies which could delineate sedimentary geology. Susceptibility variations within the sedimentary column are generally considered near zero except where relatively magnetic sediments (e.g., pyroclastics, arkoses, some shales) are present.

Total Magnetic Intensity Anomaly
The total magnetic intensity anomaly field (TI) is the resultant field after correcting TF, the total magnetic (observed) field for a regional gradient field.

Changes in the local geomagnetic field associated with stress-induced changes in rock susceptibility and remanent magnetization were simulated. Model results show that regions of uplift and subsidence are marked by positive and negative magnetic anomalies respectively, while the amplitudes are controlled by the magnitude of the displacements on the basement fault. (Onyedim)

Tectonic Evolution

Tectonic movements give form to the structure of the sedimentary deposits and to the relief of the crystalline basement’s internal structure. This, together with the relief and the depth of occurrence of its surface, is the chief factor influencing the nature of the gravitational and magnetic fields. An inherent characteristic of gravity and magnetic fields means that for any given gravity or magnetic anomaly a range of density or susceptibility distributions can cause the same anomaly.

Problems in translation include the following: (a) The structure of the gravitational field changes substantially, depending of the depth of occurrence, and on the relief of the crystalline basement’s surface. (b) If boundaries of the first-order tectonic structures are distinctly expressed in the crystalline basement’s relief in a form of faults of considerable amplitude, then their detection in the gravitational field is easy. The task becomes more complicated when the foundation is without gradients and its relief is smooth. (c) In order to determine the relation of the basement’s internal structure with its relief and with the structure of the sedimentary deposits, it is necessary to discover the differences in the basement’s internal structure within the boundaries of the different first-order tectonic structures. (d) Tracing the disjunctive dislocations in the crystalline basement can be solved by way of geological interpretation of the gravitational and magnetic fields. (Rukhovets, 1967)

Consequently, to compensate for this non-unique characteristic, it is necessary to introduce independent geological and/or geophysical constraints into the interpretations of gravity and magnetic anomalies. The Bouguer gravity field is the gravity anomaly field usually analyzed in gravity interpretations. The gravity anomalies observed in this field are caused by density contrasts within the crust and sub-crust of the Earth. Gravity and Magnetic fields are both potential fields.

Terramagnetics

High density basement may or may not be equivalent to crystalline or magnetic basement. The location within the geologic column of an area where the deepest major susceptibility contrast occurs. In areas where the crystalline basement is magnetic, the magnetic basement is equivalent to crystalline basement. Shallower susceptibility contrasts (such as occur when volcanic or magnetic sediments are in contrast with non-magnetic rocks) may mask or complicate the interpretation of magnetic basement. Susceptibility variations within magnetic basement are common.

In Sedona, latites extruded from volcanic plugs produce intense “circular” magnetic anomalies and magnetic lows, because they are generally reversely polarized. Not visibly crystalline, latites are of volcanic origin composed chiefly of sodic plagioclase and alkali feldspar with subordinate quantities of dark-colored minerals in a finely crystalline to glassy groundmass. Faults and igneous intrusions often produce small local distorting magnetic fields, according to USGS Magnetic Anomaly Survey. Complete Report: http://sedonanomalies.com/usgs_magnetic_anomaly_survey.htm Maghemite forms as nodular growths in laterites and weathers out to form ironstone gravels.

Sedona is rich in paramagnetic Fe2o3, (iron oxide; hematite), the element responsible for the red rocks, soil, and even the red color of the inner bark of trees. Iron oxide has magnetic properties depending on factors including pressure. Iron(III) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Fe2O3. It is of one of the three main oxides of iron, the other two being iron(II) oxide(FeO), which is rare, and iron(II,III) oxide (Fe3O4), which also occurs naturally as the mineral magnetite.In addition to iron oxide, the mineral magnetite may also exist in large quantities in Sedona. Concentrations of iron oxide and other metal/minerals have the effect of focusing the earth’s natural geomagnetism which is produced by the Earth’s molten outer core.

As the outer core churns a magnetic north and south pole are created. During this process another form of magnetism is produced. It is non-dipole in nature. This magnetism has no north or south. It is just pure magnetic energy. Most of this free energy is absorbed by the primary dipole, (north/south) field but a portion of it may reach and penetrate the surface of our planet.

Within the earth non-dipole magnetism assumes the form of a “vortex like” (spiral or circular) shape, that exhibits up and downward motion. Metals and minerals have the tendency to align the earth’s natural magnetism, this fact is the basis for many forms of metal/mineral detection systems. The crystalline like structure of the metal/mineral allows the earth’s magnetic field to be focused (concentrated) through the metal/mineral deposit. A proton precession magnetometer can be used to detect magnetic fields concentrated in this manner and is standard for metal/mineral exploration applications.

Magnetic activity can be correlated with “vortex energy” but that does not necessarily mean it is the only factor at work. Lonetree has recorded many intense magnetic in and outflows of energy in Sedona and believes this energy is sensed by the magnetite in our inner ear fluid. Unlike the process of hearing which relies on mechanical vibration (the ear drum), to produce electrical impulses to the brain, the magnetite, as a receptor produces the impulses that ultimately stimulate the temporal lobes of the brain. Dr. Michael Persinger’s work on temporal lobe stimulation using rotating magnetic fields suggests resultant psychophysical phenomena that correlates closely with anecdotal reports from visitors to vortex sites.

“The brain activity associated with consciousness responds to the subtle changes in geomagnetic activity. These changes include alterations in the occurrence of dreams, enhanced electrical sensitivity of groups of brain cells (and the more extreme form, electrical seizures), and the ability to focus during the day. Because all human beings are immersed within the geomagnetic field we are intrinsically connected to it and to the secondary fields that arise from this connection. Very small changes in the activity of the earth’s magnetic field due to alterations in solar activity can affect all human beings. These direct effects are primarily upon the subtle but complex electromagnetic fields that interact with everyone’s consciousness due to the marked similarity of the characteristics of our brains and our genetic history. This creates the potential for the function of every person’s brain activity to be changed without their awareness.” (Persinger)

On the molecular biological level the only significant forces are electromagnetic. Ultimately all living processes must be understood in terms of electromagnetic fields and forces. Every cell in the body a transmitter and receiver of electromagnetic information. Various cells and tissues are conductors (allow for electron flow), insulators (inhibit), semiconductors (electron flow in only one direction), capacitors (accumulate and store charge, later to release) and so on.

Cells transmit and receive energy, and each has its own frequency with which it oscillates. Both electrical and magnetic fields applied to the body create biological changes. We now know that in humans, the sinuses, some other bones in the face and various tissues in the body contain magnetite. Not only is every cell in the body a transmitter and receiver of electromagnetic information, various electromagnetic frequencies precede and correspond to biochemical functions. For example, healthy cells oscillate at higher frequencies that do unhealthy cells, such as cancer cells.

Superparamagnetics

Magnetite is a widespread accessory mineral in rocks and soils. Biogenic magnetite is produced through the reduction of ferric iron within cells. However, the exact process of magnetite synthesis is unknown. Biogenic magnetite was first discovered in humans in 1992. The function of the ferromagnetic material in humans is largely unknown, but the presence of magnetite in human brain tissue provides plausible theoretical mechanisms for the interaction of environmental magnetic fields with the human central nervous system. Ferromagnetic crystals interact more than a million times more strongly with external magnetic fields than do diamagnetic or paramagnetic materials (deoxyhemoglobin, ferritin, and hemosiderin).

Lowenstam (1962) showed magnetite frequently forms by biochemical processes, with varying degrees of control of the organisms over the mineralization process. He distinguishes between biologically induced (BIM) and biologically controlled mineralization(BCM). The former refers to processes with no biological control, and the later to processes with strict metabolic and genetic control. Although ferromagnetic material has been detected in the tissues of a variety of animals that are known or suspected to respond to magnetic fields, in only a few cases has the material been identified and its suitability for use in magnetoreception been determined.

Winklhofer describes two theories: 1). The “radical-pair hypothesis” invokes magnetically sensitive biochemical reactions involving spin-correlated radical pairs such as produced by photoexcitation in the retina. The magnetic field interacting with the radical pair controls the reaction yields and so is transduced into a chemical stimulus. 2). The ”magnetite hypothesis” assumes that the external magnetic field interacts with inclusions of magnetite (Fe3O4) in tissue, which convert the received magnetic energy into a mechanic stimulus (strain) to be detected by adjacent mechanoreceptors, which eventually generate a nervous signal (receptor potential). Thus magnetoreception is connected to chemoreception in the first case and to mechanoreception in the second case.

The two hypotheses are equally plausible at this stage of experimental evidence. Relying on completely different physical principles, the two hypotheses do not mutually exclude each other. On the contrary, there is good experimental
evidence that both types of magnetoreceptor principles may be realized, even in one the same organism, although the primary magnetic information provided by each mechanism appears to be used differently.

Biomineralization

The recent discovery that human tissues also contain trace amounts of magnetite has profound biomedical implications. Magnetite can possibly be absorbed in water and transformed into bodies as the insoluble crystalline chain.. Magnetite is the first truly novel material to be discovered as a biochemical precipitate in human tissues since the dawn of medical science. Everything else in human bones and soft tissue is either diamagnetic or paramagnetic (e.g., Lowenstam & Weiner, 1989).

Magnetite is the only known metallic compound made by living organisms and has the highest electrical conductivity of any cellular material. Although the total amount of magnetite in an adult human is small (a few hundred micrograms), there are several million crystals per gram, each of which interact rather strongly with external magnetic fields (Kirschvink). Analysis suggests molecular magnets, individual crystals of magnetite could contribute enough mechanical energy to activate trans-membrane ion channels.

Bioelectronics

We are electronic organisms, fundamentally electromagnetic, rather than chemical beings (Miller & Miller, 2003c) Beal has linked biogenic magnetite to Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity (EHS). People with EHS experience a variety of symptoms including headache, fatigue, nausea, burning and itchy skin, and muscles aches. These symptoms are subjective and vary between individuals.

Heavy metal toxicity increases the chance of EHS. Life cannot exist without evolution of the environmental energy detection, storage and transmission capabilities of the living cell, which contains a variety of biological liquid crystal (LC) forms. The lipid molecules of all biological membranes exist in various LC states, providing a matrix for information storage and environmental sensing. LCs may provide fundamental support and detection mechanisms for electric and magnetic fields. This includes sound and light, and may explain quantum-level sensitivity in some cases.
from http://sedonaomalies.weebly.com “The Sedona Effect” by Iona Miller & Ben Lonetree

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~ by ionamiller on February 23, 2011.

One Response to “THE SEDONA EFFECT”

  1. My daughter, who has no history of seizures, had a seizure in Sedona recently. Hopefully, she won’t have any more! Maybe recent solar storms, tectonic movement, and shifting of the earth’s polarity played a role and it is not epilepsy. Any thoughts from tha author would be well received. Thank you for this interesting paper.

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